Compared with other materials, aluminum alloy has many advantages, such as high strength and good corrosion resistance, which makes it widely used in civil and industrial fields, and has become the first choice of metal materials in the field of electronic and electrical, transportation and other fields.
(1) Application of aluminum alloy in the field of transportation
Nowadays, the key issue in the field of social transportation is energy conservation and environmental protection, but choosing aluminum alloy is an effective way to achieve this goal. Therefore, since 1980, aluminum alloy materials have become the main materials in the transportation industry. At present, the use of aluminum alloy materials in the transportation industry has exceeded 25%, among which the use of aluminum alloy materials in the automobile industry has exceeded 15%, which has gradually become the largest field of aluminum alloy materials in the world.
Aluminum alloy has good impact resistance, vibration resistance, tensile resistance and other mechanical properties, so as to meet the relevant standards of materials selection for automobiles and high-speed trains. In addition, the compactness of aluminum alloy material is only that of steel material33%, which reduces the weight of the car itself, reduces driving resistance, and thus saves fuel consumption.
Moreover, aluminum alloy itself has better wear resistance and corrosion resistance, without rust removal, which greatly reduces the maintenance cost and manufacturing cost. What's more, compared with traditional steel, aluminum alloy is more convenient for recycling. Generally, the recovery value of an end-of-life car is 6 times as high as a steel car. Therefore, aluminum alloy is widely used in motorcycles, trains, high-speed rail, subway and other vehicle structural parts and air conditioning, as well as skin and armour plates of different types of yachts and cruisers. In recent years, with the continuous development of high-speed railway construction in China, all aluminium alloy structures are used in high-speed railway bodies. 6xxx series aluminium alloy with high strength is often selected for the body frame in the field of automobile materials.
(2) Application of aluminum alloy in the aerospace
In 1972, Alcoa successfully developed a new type of 7075 alloy by using Ti, Mn and other trace elements, and the application of aluminum alloy in Boeing 747 aircraft successfully opened the prelude of large-scale production of aluminum alloy in aircraft. At present, aluminum alloy has become the first material for spacecraft and aircraft lightweight. In civil aircraft structure, the aluminum alloy consumption is about 76%, for example, the aluminum alloy consumption of Airbus A380 is about 71%.
At present, almost all kinds of aluminum alloys in the market can be put into the aerospace field. becauseAl-Zn-Cu has high strength and good machinability, which is often applied to aircraft structural materials, such as stressed structural parts and frames, etc. Al-Li alloy is widely used in the manufacture of low-temperature fuel tanks for rockets and aircraft because of its low density and good low-temperature toughness.
(3) Application of aluminum alloy in the electronic and electrical field
Today, there is about 6% of annually produced aluminum in the world are used in the field of electronics and electrics, while aluminum alloy is the main electronic conductor. After all, first of all, the price of aluminum alloy is far lower than that of copper alloy, which can strictly control the cost of laying cables. Secondly, because the compactness of aluminum alloy is lower than that of copper alloy, aluminum alloy can obtain the required conductivity on the basis of light and heavy, and significantly reduce the transportation cost. In addition, the recovery rate of copper alloy is lower than that of aluminum alloy, and it has high corrosion resistance, which can reduce the maintenance cost. At present, aluminium-clad steel cored aluminum strand is commonly used in high-voltage transmission lines. This type of aluminum alloy has the characteristics of high strength and good conductivity. There is also a great demand in the field of home appliances, computers and so on, especially the disk substrate of computers, packaging materials of home appliances and so on.
With the development of science and technology and economic globalization, I believe that in the near future, aluminum alloy industry can get rapid development, and began to replace the position of steel, its development trend is mainly reflected in the following aspects.
(1) Optimize the production capacity structure, focus on corrosion resistance, financial, human and material resources and other products with better performance, so as to meet the needs of transportation, electrical packaging and aerospace fields.
(2) Develop aluminum matrix composites. Under the premise of the properties of the original alloy, many new aluminum matrix composites have better physical and mechanical properties, which is also the main way for future development and research.
(3) With the development and popularization of aluminum alloy comprehensive utilization technology, regeneration technology and recovery technology, the recovery rate is increasing.
(4) Innovate process equipment, improve production and processing methods, improve the production quality of aluminum alloy, and speed up production.